Adlerian Therapy is a growth model. It stresses a positive view of human nature and that we are in control of our own fate and not a victim to it. We start at an early age in creating our own unique style of life and that style stays relatively constant through the remained of our life. That we are motivated by our setting of goals, how we deal with the tasks we face in life, and our social interest. The therapist will gather as much family history as they can. They will use this data to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help make certain the goal is not to low or high, and that the client has the means to reach it. The goal of Adlerian Therapy is to challenge and encourage the clients' premises and goals. To encourage goals that are useful socially and to help them feel equal. These goals maybe from any component of life including, parenting skills, marital skills, ending substance-abuse, and most anything else. The therapist will focus on and examine the clients' lifestyle and the therapist will try to form a mutual respect and trust for each other. They will then mutually set goals and the therapist will provided encouragement to the client in reaching their goals. The therapist may also assign homework, setup contracts between them and the client, and make suggestions on how the client can reach their goals.
Behavior therapy is always undergoing refinement and uses learning to overcome specific behavioral problems. In this type of therapy it is believed that behaviors are learned, that we are a product of our environment. Focus will be on present and overt behavior. In this type of therapy it is believed that reinforcement and imitation teaches normal behavior and that abnormal behavior is a direct result of defective learning. Therapy will be based on learning theory. The therapy will include a treatment plan, the goals of the treatment will be laid out up front, and the outcome expected from the therapy will be set right up front too. To eliminate unwanted behaviors you need to learn new behaviors. This may include assertion, behavioral rehearsal, coaching, cognitive restructuring, desensitization, modeling, reinforcement, relaxation methods, self-management, or new social skills. Both client and therapist need to take an active role in learning the more desired behavior. Behavior therapy is well suited to deal with depression, disorders in children's behavior, phobias, sexual disorders of any type, and stuttering.
Focuses on freedom of choice in shaping one's own life. Teaches one is responsible to shape his / her own life and a need for self-determination and self-awareness. The uniqueness of each individual forms his / her own unique personality, starting from infancy. Existential therapy focuses on the present and on the future. The therapist try's to help the client see they are free and to see the possibilities for their future. They will challenge the client to recognize that he / she themselves were responsible for the events in their life. This type of therapy is well suited in helping the client to make good choices or in dealing with life.
Gestalt therapy integrates the body and mind factors, by stressing awareness and integration. Integration of behaving, feelings, and thinking is the main goal in Gestalt therapy. Client's are viewed as having the ability to recognize how earlier life influences may have changed their life's. The client is is made aware of personal responsibility, how to avoid problems, to finish unfinished matters, to experience thing in a positive light, and in the awareness of now. It is up to the therapist to help lead the client to awareness of moment by moment experiencing of life. Then to challenge the client to accept the responsibility of taking care of themselves rather then excepting others to do it. The therapist may use confrontation, dream analysis, dialogue with polarities, or role playing to reach their goals. This may include treatment of crisis intervention, marital / family therapy, problem in children's behavior, psychosomatic disorders, or the training of mental health professionals.
Person-centered therapy gives more responsibility to the client in their own treatment and views humans in a positive manner. Founded by Carl Rogers in the 1940's. Rogers had great faith that we could and would work out our own problems. The therapist will move the client towards self awareness, helping the client to experience previously denied feelings. They will teach the client to trust in themselves and to use this trust to find their direction in life. The person-centered therapist makes the client aware of their problems and then guilds them to a means of resolve them. The therapist and client must have faith that the client can and will find self-direction. The therapist focus on the here and how. They motivate the client in experiencing and expressing feelings. The person-centered therapist believes that good mental health is a balance between the ideal self and real self. This is where the problem lies, the result of difference between what we are and what we wish to be causes maladjusted behavior.
Psychotherapy focus on the unconscious and believes it influences human behavior. It is believed that a person is driven by aggressive and sexual impulses. It focus mainly on the first six years of human life and how the events of this time period determines later personality. Repressed conflicts from childhood lead to personality problems later in life. Anxiety is a direct result of the repression of conflicts Psychotherapist believe that the unconscious motives along with unresolved conflicts lead to maladapted behavior. They believe that to develop a normal personality, a person successful go through five psychosexual stages:
Oral - Birth to 1 year: Sucking.
Anal - 1 to 3 years: Holding and releasing urine and feces.
Phallic - 3 to 6 years: Pleasure in genital stimulation.
Latency - 6 to 11 years: Sexual instincts develop.
Genital - Adolescence: Sexual impulses return.
Inadequate resolution of any of these stages lead to flawed personality development. The client with the therapist help will make repressed conflicts conscious, making the unconscious conscious. Making this conflicts conscious to the client will help them in working through them, awareness. Psychotherapy is not useful in clients that are self-centered, impulsive, or severely psychotic. The therapist should have extensive training and expense. The therapist when working with minorities, should focus on the clients family dynamics. Treatment will be long term.
Rational-emotive and Cognitive-behavioral Therapy
Rational-emotive therapy is a highly action-oriented and deals with the client's cognitive and moral state. This therapy stresses the clients ability of thinking on their own and in their ability to change. The rational-emotive therapist believes that we are born with the ability of rational thinking but that my fall victim to irrational thinking. They stress the clients ability to think, in making good judgments, and in taking action. The therapist will use directed therapy. The therapist believes that a neurosis is a result of irrational behavior and irrational thinking. The Rational-emotive and Cognitive-behavioral therapist believe the clients problems are rooted in childhood and in their belief system, that was formed in childhood. Therapy will include method is solving and dealing with emotional or behavior problems. The therapist will help the client to eliminate any self-defeating outlooks they may have and to view life in a rational way. The therapist will never have a personal relationship with the client. The therapist will think of the client as a student and themselves as the teacher.
The reality therapist teaches the client ways to control the world around them and how to meet their personal needs. They believe that the client can and will change their life for the better. The reality therapist focuses on the what and the why of the clients actions. They point out what the client doing and in getting them to evaluate it. A behavioral or emotional problem is a direct result of the clients believe and feelings about themselves. The therapist will help the client evaluate their behaviors and feelings, to challenge them to become more effective at meeting their needs.
Transactional analysis focus on the clients cognitive and behavior functioning. The therapist helps the client evaluate their past decisions and how those decisions affect their present life. They believe self-defeating behavior and feelings can be overcome by an awareness of them.The therapist believes that the clients personality is made up of the parent, adult, and child. They believe that it is important for the client to examine past decisions to help their make new and better decisions.